Main Article Content
Video has been used extensively in teacher preparation to develop noticing skills. Experienced teachers generally detect, understand and interpret the multiplicity of events that take place in the classroom, whereas novice teachers tend to focus their attention on more superficial aspects that are often not strictly relevant to students’ learning. This study presented video-recorded lessons both to a group of Italian novice teachers in training (without previous teaching experience) and to a group of more experienced teachers (with three or more years of service) with the aim of comparing the observation and interpretation skills of the two groups. Results confirmed prior findings: novices mostly described what they observed, focusing on the teacher’s actions and without demonstrating a critical stance nor suggesting instructional improvements. Contrary to prior research, the majority of novice participants did not focus on issues of or classroom climate or management, and differences between novice and more experienced teachers were not statistically significant. The discussion suggests various hypotheses that might explain these findings and highlights the need for professional development experiences that centre the work of teaching specifically on close analysis of practice and of student thinking.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)
Allen, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1969). Microteaching. teaching and teacher education: An international journal of research and studies (Vol. 26). Reading, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Altet, M. (1999). Analyse plurielle d'une séquence d'enseignement-apprentissage, Les cahiers du CREN. Nantes, FR: CRDP Pays de la Loire.
Amobi, F. (2005). Preservice teachers’ reflectivity on the sequence and consequences of teaching actions in a microteaching experience. Teacher Education Quarterly, 32(1), 115–128. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795309.pdf
Bandura A., & Walters R. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York, NY, USA: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bell, N. D. (2007). Microteaching: What is it that is going on here? Linguistics and Education, 18(1), 24–40. doi: 10.1016/j.linged.2007.04.002
Berliner, D. C. (2001). Learning about and learning from expert teachers. International Journal of Educational Research, 35, 463–482. doi: 10.1016/S0883-0355(02)00004-6
Berthoff, A. E. (1987). The teacher as researcher. In D. Goswami, & P. Stillman (Eds.), Reclaiming the classroom: Teacher research as an agency for change (pp. 28-39). Upper Montclair, NJ, USA: Boynton Cook.
Blomberg, G., Sherin, M. G., Renkl, A., Glogger, I., & Seidel, T. (2014). Understanding video as a tool for teacher education: investigating instructional strategies to promote reflection. Instructional Science, 42(3), 443-463. doi: 10.1007/s11251-013-9281-6
Blomberg, G., Stürmer, K., & Seidel, T. (2011). How pre-service teachers observe teaching on video: Effects of viewers’ teaching subjects and the subject of the video. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(7), 1131–1140. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2011.04.008
Blömeke, S., Suhl, U., & Kaiser, G. (2011). Teacher education effectiveness: Quality and equity of future primary teachers’ mathematics and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(2), 154-171. doi: 10.1177/0022487110386798
Borko, H., & Livingston, C. (1989). Cognition and improvisation: Differences in mathematics instruction by expert and novice teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 473-98.
Brophy, J. (Ed.) (2004). Using Video in Teacher Education (1st Edition). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.
Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (1999). Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in communities. Review of Research in Education, 249-305. doi: 10.3102/0091732X024001249
Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. L. (Eds.) (1993). Inside/outside: Teacher research and knowledge. New York, NY, USA: Teachers College Press.
Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (Eds.). (2007). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Fuller, F. F., & Manning, B. A. (1973). Self-confrontation reviewed: A conceptualization for video playback in teacher education. Review of Educational Research, 43(4), 469–528.
Gaudin, C., & Chaliès, S. (2015). Video viewing in teacher education and professional development: A literature review. Educational Research Review, 16, 41-67. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2015.06.001
Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B., & Derry, S. J. (Eds.) (2014). Video research in the learning sciences. Mahwat, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
Kaiser, G., Blömeke, S., Koenig, J., Busse, A., Doehrmann, M., & Hoth, J. (2017). Professional competencies of (prospective) mathematics teachers—cognitive versus situated approaches. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 94(2), 161-182.
Kersting, N., Givvin, K. B., Thompson, B., Santagata, R., & Stigler, J. (2012). Measuring usable knowledge: Teachers’ analyses of mathematics classroom videos predict teaching quality and student learning. American Education Research Journal, 49(3), 568-589. doi:10.3102/0002831212437853
Kpanja, E. (2001). A study of the effects of video tape recording in microteaching training. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4), 483–486. doi:10.1111/1467-8535.00215
Lee, H. (2005). Understanding and assessing preservice teachers’ reflective thinking. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(6), 699-715. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2005.05.007
Lewis, C., Perry, R., & Hurd, J. (2004). A deeper look at lesson study. Educational Leadership, 61(5), 18-22.
Michalsky, T. (2014). Developing the SRL-PV assessment scheme: Preservice teachers’ professional vision for teaching self-regulated learning. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 43, 214–229. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2014.05.003
Mottet, G. (1997). La vidéo-formation. Autres regards, autres pratiques. Paris, FR: L’Harmattan.
Nye B., Konstantopoulos S., & Hedges L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26, 237-257. doi: 10.3102/01623737026003237
OECD (2005). Teachers matter Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers – Final report. Paris, FR: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/attractingdevelopingandretainingeffectiveteachers-finalreportteachersmatter.htm#EO
Pea, R. D. (2006). Video-as-Data and Digital Video Manipulation Techniques for Transforming Learning Sciences Research, Education, and Other Cultural Practices. In J. Weiss, J. Nolan, & P. Trifonas (Eds.), The International Handbook of Virtual Learning Environments. Dordrecht (pp. 1321–1393). Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishing.
Plöger, W., Scholl, D., & Seifert, A. (2018). Bridging the gap between theory and practice – The effective use of videos to assist the acquisition and application of pedagogical knowledge in pre-service teacher education. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 58, 197–204. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2017.12.009
Sabers, D., Cushing, K. S., & Berliner, D. C. (1991). Differences among teachers in a task characterized by simultaneity, multidimensionality, and immediacy. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 63–88.
Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN, USA: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research Center.
Santagata, R., & Angelici, G. (2010). Studying the impact of the lesson analysis framework on preservice teachers’ abilities to reflect on videos of classroom teaching. Journal of teacher education, 61(4), 339-349. doi: 10.1177/0022487110369555
Santagata, R., & Guarino, J. (2011). Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching. ZDM Mathematics Education, 43, 133–145. doi: 10.1007/s11858-010-0292-3
Santagata, R., Gallimore, R., & Stigler, J. W. (2005). The use of video for teacher education and professional development. Past experiences and future directions. In C. Vrasidas, & G. V. Glass (Eds.), Current Perspectives on Applied Information Technologies (Vol. 2): Preparing Teachers to Teach with Technology (pp. 151–167). Greenwich, CT, USA: Information Age Publishing.
Santagata, R., Yeh, C., & Mercado, J. (2018). Preparing Elementary School Teachers to Learn from Teaching: A Comparison of Two Approaches to Mathematics Methods Instruction. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 27(3), 474-516. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2018.1441030
Santagata, R., Zannoni, C., & Stigler, J. W. (2007). The role of lesson analysis in pre-service teacher education: An empirical investigation of teacher learning from a virtual video-based field experience. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 10(2), 123-140. doi: 10.1007/s10857-007-9029-9
Schäfer, S., & Seidel, T. (2015). Noticing and reasoning of teaching and learning components by pre-service teachers. Journal for Educational Research Online, 7(2), 34–58.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. How professionals think in action. London, UK: Temple Smith.
Seidel, T., & Sturmer, K. (2014). Modeling and measuring the structure of professional vision in preservice teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 51(4), 739–771.
Şen, A. İ. (2009). A Study on the effectiveness of peer microteaching in a teacher education program. Education and Science, 34(151), 165–174.
Sherin, M. G. (2001). Developing a professional vision of classroom events. In T. Wood, B.S. Nelson, & J. Warfield (Eds.) Beyond classical pedagogy: Teaching elementary school mathematics (pp. 75-93). Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Erlbaum.
Sherin, M. G. (2007). The development of teachers' professional vision in video clubs. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences (pp. 383-395). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sherin, M. G., & Han, S. Y. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 163-183.
Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of Video Club Participation on Teachers’ Professional Vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20–37.
Snoeyink, R. (2010). Using video self-analysis to improve the ‘withitness’ of student teachers. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 26(3), 101-110.
Spiro, R. J., Collins, B. P., & Ramchandran, A. (2007). Reflections on a post-Gutenberg epistemology for video use in ill-structured domains: Fostering complex learning and cognitive flexibility. In R. Goldman, R. D. Pea, B. Barron, & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 93–100). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Star, J. R., & Strickland, S. K. (2008). Learning to observe: Using video to improve preservice mathematics teachers’ ability to notice. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11(2), 107-125.
Steffensky, M., Gold, B., Holdynski, M., & Möller, K. (2015). Professional vision of classroom management and learning support in science classrooms. Does professional vision differ across general and content-specific classroom interactions? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 351–368.
Tochon, F. V. (1999). Video study groups for education, professional development, and change. Madison, WI, USA: Atwood Pub.
van Es, E. A. (2009). Participants’ roles in the context of a video club. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 18(1), 100-137.
Van Es, E. A., & Sherin, M. G. (2002). Learning to notice: Scaffolding new teachers’ interpretations of classroom interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(4), 571–595.
van Es, E. A., & Sherin, M. G. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ “learning to notice” in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), pp. 244–276.
Wang, J., & Hartley, K. (2003). Video technology as a support for teacher education reform. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(1), 105-138.
Welsch, R. G., & Devlin, P. A. (2007). Developing preservice teachers’ reflection: examining the use of video. Action in Teacher Education, 28(4), 53–61.
Wilkinson, G. A. (1996). Enhancing microteaching through additional feedback from preservice administrators. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(2), 211–221.
Wright, G. A. (2008). How does video analysis impact teacher reflection-for-action? [Paper 1362. BYU Scholars Archive]. Provo, UT, USA: Brigham Young University. Retrieved from https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/1362/