Creativity and ICT in compulsory school: a survey of teachers' opinions and practices

Main Article Content

Anusca Ferrari


Creativity is a fundamental competence for developing thinking skills, one that has direct and positive effects on learning. Creativity is very often interpreted in a narrow way and is not necessarily a priority in educational practices. This article reports the opinions of 1,478 Italian teachers who took part in a European online survey on the meaning of creativity for school. The results discussed here present the teachers’ opinions and theories on creativity, the most common educational practices they follow, their use of and opinions on ICT for creative learning, and the kind of training they receive.

Article Details

Articles - Special Issue


Amabile T. M. (1989). Growing Up Creative. New York: Crown Publishing Group, Inc.

Banaji S., Burn A., Buckingham D. (2006). Rhetorics of creativity: a review of the literature, URL: (ultima consultazione 02 luglio 2010).

Beghetto R. A. (2005). Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity? The Educational Forum, 69, pp. 254–263.

Black P., Harrison C., Lee C., Marshall B., William D. (2004). Working Inside the Black Box: assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), pp. 9-21.

Boden M. (2001). Creativity and Knowledge. In A. Craft, B. Jeffrey e M. Leibling (eds.). Creativity in education. London: Continuum, pp. 95-102.

Craft A. (2005). Creativity in schools: tensions and dilemmas. London: Routledge.

EC (2009). Ambasciatori europei per la Creatività e l’Innovazione - Manifesto, URL: (ultima consultazione 28 giugno 2010).

EC (2010). Una strategia per una crescita intelligente, sostenibile e inclusiva. Comunicazione della Commissione Europa 2020, URL: (ultima consultazione 28 giugno 2010).

Ellis S., Barrs M. (2008). The Assessment of Creative Learning. In J. SeftonGreen (ed.). Creative Learning. London: Creative Partnerships, pp. 73-89.

Esquivel G. B. (1995). Teacher behaviors that foster creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7(2), pp. 185-202.

Ferrari A., Cachia R., Punie Y. (2009). Innovation and creativity in education and training in the EU Member States: fostering creative learning and supporting innovative teaching. Literature review on Innovation and Creativity in E&T in the EU Member States (ICEAC), Technical Note: JRC 52374, URL: (ultima consultazione 02 luglio 2010).

Hargreaves D. (2003). Education Epidemic. Transforming secondary schools through innovation networks. Demos, URL: (ultima consultazione 28 giugno 2010).

Lindström L. (2006). Creativity: What Is It? Can You Assess It? Can It Be Taught?. The International Journal of Art & Design Education, 25(1), pp. 53-66.

Loveless A. M. (2002). Literature Review in Creativity, New Technologies and Learning. Bristol, UK: Futurlab, URL: Creativity_Review.pdf (ultima consultazione 0 2luglio 2010).

Loveless A. M. (2007). Creativity, technology and learning – a review of recent literature, 4 (update). Bristol, UK: Futurlab, URL: (ultima consultazione 02 luglio 2010).

NACCCE (1999). All our futures: Creativity, culture and education. Sudbury: National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education, DfEE e DCMS, URL: (ultima consultazione 02 luglio 2010).

Piaget J. (1973). To understand is to invent: the future of education. New York: Grossman Publishers.

Prensky M. (2004). What can you learn from a cell phone? Almost anything!. Innovate Journal of Online Education, URL:!.pdf (consultazione 28 giugno 2010).

Punie Y., Cabrera M., Bogdanowicz M., Zinnbauer D., Navajas E. (2005). The future of ICT and learning in the knowledge society. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Joint Research Centre, European Commission, URL: (ultima consultazione 28 giugno 2010).

Robinson K. (2001). Out of our minds: learning to be creative. Oxford: Capstone.

Runco M. A. (1999). Implicit Theories. In M. A. Runco e S. R. Pritzker (eds.). Encyclopedia of creativity, 2. San Diego, California; London: Academic, pp. 27-30.

Runco M. A. (2003). Education for Creative Potential. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), pp. 317-324.

Sawyer R. K. (2006). Explaining creativity: The science of human innovation. Oxford University Press, USA.

Scanlon M., Buckingham D., Burn A. (2005). Motivating maths? Digital games and mathematical learning. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 14(1), pp. 127-139.

Vygotsky L. S. (2004). Imagination and creativity in childhood. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, 42(1), pp. 7-97.