The measurement of social presence in an online learning environment

Main Article Content

Chih-Hsiung Tu


Presentation of a tool to measure social presence and privacy in a Computer Mediated Communication (CMC).

Article Details

Articles - Special Issue


Argyle M., Dean J. (1965), Eye contact, distance and affiliation, Sociometry, vol. 28, pp. 289–304

Blocher J. M., Amato V., Storslee J. (1996), An interactive guide to the Internet, Macmillian, Indianapolis, IN

Champness B. G. (1972a), Attitudes towards person–person communications media, University College, London, Article No. E/72011/CH

Champness B. G. (1972b), Feelings towards media: Media in group situations, University College, London, Article No. E/72160/CH

Champness B. G. (1973), Attitudes toward person–person communications media, Human Factors, vol. 15, pp. 437–448

Christie B. (1973), Laboratory communications experiments in teleconferencing, in P. C. Goldmark & associates (eds.), The 1972/73 new rural society project, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT, pp. 5.1–5.15

Christie B. (1974), Semantic differential judgments of communications media and other concepts: 1. Differences between the media. Communications studies group, Article No. E/74120/CR

Christie B., Holloway S. (1975), Factors affecting the use of telecommunications by management, Journal of Occupation Psychology, vol. 48, pp. 3–9

Crocker L., Algina J. (1986), Introduction to classical and modern test theory, Hold, Rinebart, & Winston, New York

Denning D., Lin H. S. (1994), Rights and responsibilities in networked communities, National Academy Press, Washington, DC

Dillon C. L., Walsh S. M. (1992), Faculty: The neglected resource in distance education, The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 5–21

Feenberg A. (1989), The written world: On the theory and practice of computer conferencing, in R. Mason, A. Kaye (eds.), Mindweave: Communication, computers, and distance education, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 22–39

Friedman B. (1990), Societal issues and school practices: An ethnographic investigation of the social context of school computer use, presentato a The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 321 740

Garramone G. M., Harris A. C., Anderson R. (1986), Uses of political computer bulletin boards, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 30, n. 3, pp. 325–339

Garrison D. R., Anderson T., Archer W. (2000), Critical inquiry in a text–based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 2, n. 2–3, pp. 1–19

Gunawardena C. N. (1995), Social presence theory and implications for interaction collaborative learning in computer conferences, International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, vol. 1, n. 2/3, pp. 147–166

Gunawardena C. N., Zittle F. J. (1997), Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer– mediated conferencing environment, The American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 11, n. 3, pp. 8–26

Hackman M. Z., Walker K. B. (1990), Instructional communication in the televised classroom: The effects of system design and teacher immediacy on student learning and satisfaction, Communication Education, vol. 39, n. 3, pp. 196–206

Johansen R., Vallee J., Spangler K. (1988), Teleconferencing: Electronic group communication, in R. S. Cathcart, L. A. Samovar (eds.), Small group communication: A reader, Institute for the Future, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 140–154

Kerr E. B., Hiltz S. R. (1982), Computer–mediated communication systems: Status and evaluation, Academic Press, New York

King S. A. (1996), Researching Internet communities: Proposed ethical guidelines for the reporting of results, The Information Society, vol. 12, n. 2, pp. 119–127

Klein S. P., Kosecoff J. P. (1975), Determining how well a test measure your objectives, University of California at Los Angeles, Center for the Study of Evaluation, Los Angeles, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 109 226 Lea M. (1992), Contexts of computer– mediated communication, Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York

McIsaac M. S., Gunawardena C. N. (1996), Distance education, in D. Jonassen (ed.), Handbook for research on educational communications and technology, Scholastic Press, New York, pp. 403–437

Neumann P. (1995), Computer –related risks, ACM Press, New York Osgood C. E., Suci G. J., Tannenbaum P. H. (1957), The measure of meaning, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL

Perse E. I., Burton P., Kovner E., Lears M. E., Sen R. J. (1992), Predicting computer–mediated communication in a college class, Communication Research Reports, vol. 9, n. 2, 161–170

Rafaeli S. (1988), Interactivity: From new media to communication, in R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann, S. Pingree (eds.), Advancing communication science: Merging mass and interpersonal process, Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 110–134

Rice R. E. (1984), The new media: Communication, research, and technology, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA

Rice R. E. (1993), Media appropriateness: Using social presence theory to compare traditional and new organization media, Human Communication Research, vol. 19, n. 4, pp. 451–484

Rifkind L. J. (1992), Immediacy as a predictor of teacher effectiveness in the instructional television, Journal of Interactive Television, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 31–38

Ruchinskas J. (1982), Communicating in organizations: The influence of context, job, task, and channel, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Sanders J. A., Wiseman R. L. (1990), The effects of verbal and nonverbal teacher immediacy on perceived cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning in the multicultural classroom, Communication Education, vol. 39, n. 4, pp. 341–352

Short J. A., Williams E., Christie B. (1976), The social psychology of telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, London

Spears R., Lea M. (1992), Social influence and the influence of the ‘social’ in computer–mediated communication, in M. Lea (ed.), Contexts of computer–mediated communication, Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York, pp. 30–65

Steinfield C. W. (1986), Computer– mediated communication in an organizational setting: Explaining task–related and socioemotional uses, in M. L. McLaughlin (ed.), Communication yearbook 9, Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 777–804

Svenning L. L. (1982), Explaining predispositions toward telecommunication innovations: The case of video conferencing, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Svenning L. L., Ruchinskas J. E. (1984), Organizational teleconferencing, in R. E. Rice (eds.), The new media: Communication, research, and technology, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp. 217–248

Tu C. H. (2000), Critical examination of factors affecting interaction on CMC, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 23, n. 1, pp. 39–58

Tu C. H. (2001), How Chinese perceive social presence: An examination of in online learning environment, Educational Media International, vol. 38, n. 1, pp. 45–60

Walther J. B. (1992), Interpersonal effects in computer–mediated interaction: A relational perspective, Communication Research, vol. 19, n. 1, pp. 52–90

Walther J. B. (1996), Computer– mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction, Communication Research, vol. 23, n. 1, pp. 3–43

Walther J. B., Burgoon J. K. (1992), Relational communication in computer–mediated interaction, Human Communication Research, vol. 19, pp. 50–88

Weisband S. P. (1992), Group discussion and first advocacy effects in computer–mediated and face–to–face decision making groups, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 53, pp. 352–380

Witmer D. F. (1997), Risky business: Why people feel safe in sexually explicit on–line communication, Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 2, n. 4