Main Article Content
This contribution looks at the game as a technology for communicating, sharing and learning. It poses a specific focus on the play activity as a means to address cultural integration, presenting the analysis and research outcomes gleaned enquiring the persuasive urban game AHW (full name removed for blind peer review) and its application to a group of adolescents who manifested hostile feelings towards foreigners. The game intends to immerse players into awkward situations to problematise and modify their former mindset, prejudices and biases towards migrants, fostering effective learning outcomes able to affect behaviours and increase empathy. The enquiry is an action research conducted via pre- and post-experience qualitative questionnaires, short interviews and focus groups. The analysis reveals that players were involved in processes of moving, uncomfortable identification that lessened existing prejudices, increasing the comprehension of certain immigrants’ conditions and fragility, with relevant outcomes in terms of persisting transformative learning.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)
Alexander, C. (1979). The Timeless Way of Building. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Anolli, L. (2011). La sfida della mente multiculturale. Milano, Italy: Cortina.
Anolli, L. & Mantovani, F. (2011). Come funziona la nostra mente. Apprendimento, simulazione e Serious Games. Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino.
Antonacci, F. (2012a). Puer Ludens. Antimanuale per poeti, funamboli e guerrieri. Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli.
Antonacci F. (2012b). Corpi radiosi, segnati, sottili. Ultimatum a una pedagogia dal "culo di pietra". Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli.
Bertolo, M. & Mariani, I. (2013). Meaningful Play: Learning, Best Practices, Reflections through Games. In K. Mitgutsch, S. Huber, J. Rosenstingl, M. Wagner, J. Wimmer (Eds.), Context Matters! Exploring and Reframing Games in Context. Proceedings of the 7th Vienna Games Conference FROG13 (pp.222-234). Vienna, Austria: New Academic Press.
Bertolo, M., & Mariani, I. (2014a). Game Design. Gioco e giocare tra teoria e progetto. Milano, Italy: Pearson.
Bertolo, M., & Mariani, I. (2014b). A Hostile World: A Pervasive Urban Game to Sensitise and Foster a Cross-Cultural Reflection. In D. Ruggiero (Ed.), Cases on the Societal Effects of Persuasive Games (pp.232-253). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Brown, J. S. (2001). Learning in the Digital Age. In The Internet and the University: Forum (pp. 71-72). Washington, DC: Educause.
Bogost, I. (2007). Persuasive Games. The Expressive Power of Videogames. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Creswell, J. W. (2008). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Flanagan, M. (2009). Critical Play: Radical Game Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Flanagan, M. (2010). Creating Critical Play. In R. Catlow, M. Garrett, & C. Morgana (Eds.), Artists Re:Thinking Games, (pp.49-53). Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press.
Flanagan, M., & Looui, S. (2008). Massively Multiplayer Urban Games: Soba. Hanover, NH: Tiltfactor. Retrieved from http://www.tiltfactor.org/game/massively-multiplayer-urban-games/
Flanagan, M., & Nissenbaum, H. (2007). A Game Design Methodology to Incorporate Social Activist themes. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (pp.181-190). Retrieved from http://www.tiltfactor.org/wp-content/uploads2/A-Game-Design-Methodology.pdf
Flanagan, M., & Nissenbaum, H. (2014). Values at Play in Digital Games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Frasca, G. (2003). Simulation Versus Narrative. In M. J. Wolf & B. Perron, The Video Game Theory Reader, (pp.221-235). London, UK: Routledge.
Giusti, M. (2012a). L'educazione interculturale nella scuola. Milano, Italy: Rizzoli.
Giusti, M. (2012b). Formazione e spazi pubblici. Competenze e metodologie interculturali dagli spazi di vita. Milano, Italy: Franco Angeli.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Gray, P. (2013). Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life. New York, NY: Basic Book.
Huizinga, J. (1938). Homo Ludens. A Study of the Play Element In Culture (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Juul, J. (2013). The Art of Failure. An Essay on the Pain of Playing Video Games. Cambridge; MA: MIT Press.
Kelly, G. (1955). Principles of Personal Construct Psychology. New York, NY: Norton.
Koster, R. (2005). A Theory of Fun in Game Design. Scottsdale. Phoenix, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Ierardi, L. (2013). Un mondo ostile. Design e paradigmi ludici come facilitatori per la comunicazione interculturale. (MSc thesis, Politecnico di Milano). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10589/76801.
Ierardi, L., Bertolo, M, & Mariani, I. (2013). A Hostile World [game/performance]. Milan, Italy: Politecnico di Milano, School of Design.
Lewin, K. (1947). Group Decision and Social Change. Readings in Social Psychology, 3, 197-211.
Lopez, A. R. (2015). Emotions at Play: Assessing Emotional Responses of Teenagers after they play “Papers, Please”. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington]. Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/1773/33416.
Mariani, I. (2016). Meaningful Negative Experiences within Games for Social Change. (Doctoral dissertation, Politecnico di Milano). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10589/117855.
Mariani, I., & Gandolfi, E. (2016). Negative Experiences as Learning Trigger: A Play Experience Empirical Research on a Game for Social Change Case Study. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 6(3), 50-73.
Mäyrä, F. (2008). An Introduction to Game Studies. London, UK: SAGE.
McKinney, Urban Ministries of Durham (2011). Spent [digital game]. Durham, NC: McKinney.
Mezirow, J. (1996). Contemporary Paradigms of Learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 46(3), 158-172.
Millen, D. R. (2000). Rapid Ethnography: Time Deepening Strategies for HCI Field Research. Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, 280-286.
Mitgutsch, K., & Weise, M. (2011). Subversive Game Design for Recursive Learning. DiGRA Conference Proceedings 2011. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/100273.
Montola, M., Stenros, J., & Waern, A. (2009). Pervasive Games: Theory and Design. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Murray, J. H. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Koubek, A. & Macleod, H. (2004). Game-Based Learning. In M. Pivec, A. Koubek, & C. Dondi (Eds.), Guidelines for Game-Based Learning (pp.14-19). Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.
Pope, L. (2013). Papers, Please [videogame]. Japan: Pope, L.
Ruggiero, D. N. (2014). Spent: Changing Students' Affective Learning Toward Homelessness Through Persuasive Video Game Play. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3423-3432). doi:10.1145/2556288.2557390
Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Salen, K. (2008) (Ed.). The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Salen, K. (2011). Quest to Learn: Developing the School for Digital Kids. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Salen, K., Torres, R., Wolozin, L., Rufo-Tepper, R., & Shapiro, A. (2011). Quest to Learn: Developing the School for Digital Kids. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sicart, M. (2011). Against Procedurality. Game Studies, 11(3). Retrieved from: http://gamestudies.org/1103/articles/sicart_ap
Sirna Terranova, C. (1997). Pedagogia interculturale. Concetti, problemi, proposte. Milano, Italy: Guerini.
Squire, K. (2005). Changing the Game: What Happens When Video Games Enter the Classroom? Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1(6). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/107270
Squire, K. (2006). From Content to Context: Videogames as Designed Experience. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19-29.
Thompson, A. (2014). Andmaybetheywontkillyou [game/performance]. Seattle, WA: Rainbros.
Turner, V. (1982). From Ritual to Theatre. The Human Seriousness of Play. New York, NY: Performing Arts Journal Publications.
Zoletto, D. (2002). Gli equivoci del multiculturalismo. Aut aut, 312, 6-18.
Zoletto, D. (2010). Il gioco duro dell’integrazione. L’intercultura sui campi da gioco. Milano, Italy: Cortina.
Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1992). Action Research in Higher Education: Examples and Reflections. London, UK: Kogan Page Limited.