Articles - Dossier

A model for training parents and teachers of children with special needs


This paper presents an integrated training model designed to promote networked community-based interventions for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The article begins with discussion of a multimodal approach to the care process and a description of some important theoretical assumptions. This is followed by a description of the training program, its structure, distinctive features and methodology. Finally, preliminary results are reported and discussed in three areas: the training model’s effectiveness for promoting an integrated view of children’s behaviors; improvements in parents’ and teachers’ management of challenging behaviors; and experience with the WHAAM application used.


Educational Technology; eHealth education; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Functional Behavioral Assessment; Parent and teacher training; WHAAM application; Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)

Full Text:




Barkley, R. A. (Ed.). (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Third Edition. A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York/London: The Guilford Press.

Barkley, R. A., Shelton, T. L., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barrett, S., ... Metevia, L. (2000). Multi-method psychoeducational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: Preliminary results at post-treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(03), 319-332.

Belvis, E., Pineda, P., Armengol, C., & Moreno, V. (2013). Evaluation of reflective practice in teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 36(3), 279-292. doi:10.1080/02619768.2012.718758

Camp, E. M., Iwata, B. A., Hammond, J. L., & Bloom, S. E. (2009). Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 42(2), 469-483. doi:10.1901/jaba.2009.42-469

Conroy, M. A., Davis, C. A., Fox, J. J., & Brown, W. H. (2002). Functional assessment of behavior and effective supports for young children with challenging behaviors. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 27(4), 35-47. doi:10.1177/073724770202700405

Darling Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st Century Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education 57(3), 300-314. doi: 10.1177/0022487105285962

DuPaul, G. J., Jitendra, A. K., Volpe, R. J., Lutz, J. G., Gruber, R., & Lorah, K. (2004). Promoting Academic Success in Students with ADHD: Short-Term Outcomes. Paper presented at the annual Pacific Coast Research Conference, Coronado, CA.

Garet, M. S., Porter, A. C., Desimone, L., Birman, B. F., & Yoon, K. S. (2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American educational research journal, 38(4), 915-945. doi: 10.3102/00028312038004915

Greenhalgh, T., Kyriakidou, O., & Peacock, R. (2004). How to Spread Good Ideas: A systematic review of the literature on diffusion, dissemination and sustainability of innovations in health service delivery and organisation. Report for the National Coordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R&D (NCCSDO), University College, London.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & McCord, B. E. (2003). Functional analysis of problem behavior: a review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36(2), 147-185. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2003.36-147

Hurwitz, S., & Minshawi, N. F. (2012). Methods of defining and observing behaviors. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Functional assessment for challenging behaviors (pp. 91-103). Springer New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3037-7-6

Kaiser, A. P., & Hancock, T. B. (2003). Teaching parents new skills to support their young children’s development. Infants & Young Children, 16(1), 9-21. doi: 10.1097/00001163-200301000-00003

Kotkin, R. A. (1995). The Irvine Paraprofessional Program: Using Paraprofessionals in Serving Students with ADHD. Intervention in School and Clinic, 30(4), 235-40.

Merlo, G., Chiazzese, G., Di Giuseppe, O., Spachos, D. (2016). Monitoraggio comportamentale a scuola e in famiglia: l’applicazione WHAAM. TD Tecnologie Didattiche, 24(1),47-51.

Miller, F. G., & Lee, D. L. (2013). Do functional behavioral assessments improve intervention effectiveness for students diagnosed with ADHD? A single-subject meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioral Education, 22(3), 253-282. doi: 10.1007/s10864-013-9174-4

Miranda, A., Presentación, M. J., & Soriano M. (2002). Effectiveness of a School-Based Multicomponent Program for the Treatment of Children with ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(6), 547-563. doi: 10.1177/00222194020350060601

Office for Standards in Education (2001). Inservice Postgraduate Training Courses for Teachers: an overview report of inspections of courses funded by the Teacher Training Agency. London: OFSTED.

Pelham Jr, W. E., & Fabiano, G. A. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 184-214. doi:10.1080/15374410701818681

Pelham, W. E., Foster, E. M., & Robb, J. A. (2007). The Economic Impact of AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(6), 711-727. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsm022

Phelan, T. W. (2010). 1-2-3 Magic: Effective Discipline for Children 2-12 (4th ed). Glen Ellyn, Illinois: ParentMagic, Inc..

Polidori, L., Muratori, P., Baldi, I., Lenzi, F., Manfredi, A., Ruglioni, L., … Milone, A. (2010). Il trattamento multimodale per i disturbi del comportamento e aggressività in età evolutiva: l’esperienza di “Al di là delle nuvole”. Disturbi di attenzione e iperattività, 5(3), 173-198.

Riffel, L. (2005). Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP) based on Functional Behaviour Assessments (FBA): Making Data Based Decisions to Change Behaviour. Retrieved from fourthconference/Files/Riffel_L_no1.pdf

Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.

Rothenberger, A., Danckaerts, M., Döpfner, M., Sergeant, J., Steinhausen, HC. (2004). EINAQ - a European educational initiative on AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated problems. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(Suppl. 1), i31-i35. doi: 10.1007/s00787-004-1003-9

Sanches-Ferreira, M., Chifari, A., Santos, M., Silveira-Maia, M., Alves, S., Merlo, G., Seta, L., & Chiazzese, G. (2015). The design of an e-learning module centered in the use of an innovative web health application for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder monitoring. Proceedings of INTED2015 - 9th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. March 2-4, Madrid, Spain.

Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000). The triple P-positive parenting program: a comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 68(4), 624.

Schock, K. M. (2010). Functional behavioral assessment, diagnosis, and treatment: A complete system for education and mental health settings. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Seta, L., Chifari, A., Denaro, P. (2016). Il progetto WHAAM: un servizio per genitori e insegnanti di studenti con ADHD. TD Tecnologie Didattiche, 24(1), 56-60.

Sonuga Barke, E. J., Thompson, M., Daley, D., & Laver Bradbury, C. (2004). Parent training for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Is it as effective when delivered as routine rather than as specialist care? British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 449-457.

Spachos, D., Chiazzese, G., Merlo, G., Doherty, G., Chifari, A. & Bamidis, P. (2014). WHAAM: A Mobile Application for Ubiquitous Monitoring of ADHD Behaviors. Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Interactive Mobile Communication Technologies and Learning (IMCL 2014), November 13-14, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Wheeler, H., & Connor, J. (2009). Parents, Early Years and Learning: Parents as Partners in the Early Years Foundation Stage-Principles into Practice. London, UK: National Children’s Bureau.

Wood, M., Ferlie, E., and Fitzgerald, L. (1998). Achieving clinical behavior change: a case of becoming indeterminate. Social Science and Medicine, 47, 1729-1738.

Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational Psychology. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Manuela Sanches-Ferreira, Antonella Chifari, Monica Silveira-Maia, Giuseppe Chiazzese, Miguel Santos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Educational Technology (IJET) | ISSN (print) 2532-4632 | ISSN (online) 2532-7720