Articles - Special Issue

Rethinking education in a context of forced migration


This paper is framed by the ongoing debate surrounding European policy on immigration and focuses on the economic effects and training needs generated by the new flows of forced migration. The considerations presented offer an opportunity to rethink our response to the challenges being posed by an increasingly heterogeneous and multi-ethnic society, and how new technologies might be leveraged as part of that response. The conclusion is that education and training can play a pivotal role in transforming the current migration emergency into an opportunity for growth and economic development for the EU.


Migrant emergency; Forced and economic migrants; European policies on migrant education; Migrant education; Economic impact of migration; Educational technology.

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)



Agirdag, O. (2010). Exploring bilingualism in a monolingual school system: insights from Turkish and native students from Belgian schools. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31, pp. 307–321

Bansel, P., Denson, N., Keltie, E., Moody, L., & Theakstone, G. (2016) Young Newly Arrived Migrants and Refugees in Australia: Using Digital Storytelling Practices to Capture Settlement Experiences and Social Cohesion. Melbourne, Australia: Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre.

Bauer, E. B., & Gort, M. (Eds.). (2012). Early biliteracy development: exploring young learners' use of their linguistic resources. London, UK: Routledge.

Brücker, H. (2011). The Labor Market Challenge. Does International Migration Challenge Labor Markets in Host Countries? A Critical Review of the Recent and Traditional Literature. RSCAS Research Project Reports, EU-US Immigration Systems 2011/21. Retrieved from

Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers II: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. The American Economic Review, 104(9), 2633-2679.

Clark, D. B., Touchman, S., Martinez-Garza, M., Ramirez-Marin, F., & Drews, T. S. (2012). Bilingual language supports in online science inquiry environments. Computers & Education, 58(4), 1207-1224.

Commissione Europea (2016). An economic take on the refugee crisis. A macroeconomic assessment for the EU. Institutional Paper 033. Retrieved from

Commissione Europea (2006). Il futuro demografico dell’Europa, trasformare una sfida in un’opportunità. Comunicazione della Commissione, COM(2006) 571 def.

Cummins, J. (2001). Bilingual children's mother tongue: why is it important for education?. SPROG forum, pp. 15–20

Dadush U., & Niebuhr M. (2016). The economic impact of forced migration. Policy Paper 16/05. Rabat, Marocco: OCP Policy Center.

D’Amuri, F, & Peri, G. (2014). Immigration, Jobs and Labor Market Institutions: Evidence from Europe. Journal of European Economic Association, 12(2), 432–464.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. Education policy analysis archives, 8, 1.

Errighi, L., & Griesse, J. (2016). The Syrian refugee crisis: labour market implications in Jordan and Lebanon. Discussion Paper n. 029. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Directorate General for economic and financial affairs.

Eurostat (2016). Asylum statistics. Retrieved from

Godwin-Jones, R. (2016). Looking back and ahead: 20 years of technologies for language learning. Language Learning & Technology 20(2), 5–12. Retrieved from

Grappiolo, C., Cheong, Y. G., Togelius, J., Khaled, R., & Yannakakis, G. N. (2011, May). Towards player adaptivity in a serious game for conflict resolution. In Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES), 2011 Third International Conference on (pp. 192-198). IEEE.

Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers Make a Difference, What is the research evidence?. Retrieved from

IMF (2016). The Refugee Surge in Europe; Economic Challenges. IMF Staff Discussion Notes 16/2. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Jacobsen, K. & Landau, L. (2003). The dual imperative in refugee research: some methodological and ethical considerations in social science research on forced migration. Disaster, 27, 185-206.

Jalbout, M. (2015a). Reaching all children with education in Lebanon: Opportunities for action. Published by Theirworld, A world at School and Global Business Coalition for Education. Retrieved from

Jalbout, M. (2015b). Partnering for a Better Future: Ensuring Educational Opportunity for All Syrian Refugee Children and Youth in Turkey. Published by Theirworld, A world at School and Global Business Coalition for Education. Retrieved from

Jalbout, M. (2015c). Opportunities for Accelerating Progress on Education for Syrian Children and Youth in Jordan. Published by Theirworld, A world at School and Global Business Coalition for Education.

Kancs, A., & Lecca, P. (2016). Long-term social, economic and fiscal effects of immigration into the EU: The role of the integration policy. EERI Research Paper Series No 08/2016. Brussels, Belgium: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute.

Keynes, J. M. (1936). The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. London, UK: Macmillan.

Kuhlman, T. (2000). Forced migration: an Economist’s perspective. Research Memorandum 2000-10. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Vrije Universiteit.

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2007). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: Can mobile devices support collaborative practice in speaking and listening. ReCALL, 20(3), 1-20.

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20(03), 271-289.

Levy, M. (2009). Technologies in use for second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 93(s1), 769-782.

Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham, L., & Lee, S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: A review of the literature from 1990–2000. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(3), 250-273.

OECD (2013). International Migration Outlook 2013. Retrieved from

OECD (2015). International Migration Outlook 2015. Retrieved from

Pipitone, V., & Seta, L. (2012). The Conditional Convergence in TFP Levels. On the Relationship between TFP, Processes of Accumulation and Institutions. DISEI Working Papers 09/2012. Florence, Italy: Dipartimento di scienze per l’economia e l’impresa, Università di Firenze.

Reyes, I. (2006). Exploring connections between emergent biliteracy and bilingualism. Journal of early childhood literacy, 6(3), 267-292.

Robin, B. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into Practice, 47(3), pp. 200-228

Rodriguez, S. C. (2017). Understanding and Teaching Emergent Bilingual Students. In C. Martin, & D. Polly (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Teacher Education and Professional Development (pp. 605-615). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-1067-3.ch033.

Ruiz, I., & Vargas-Silva, C. (2013). The economics of forced migration. The journal of Development Studies, 49(6), 772-784.

Smith, A. (1776). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. In E. Cannan (Ed.), 2 vols. London, UK: Methuen. Retrieved from http:/

Solow, R. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The quarterly journal of economics, 70(1), 65-94.

Tripartite Social Summit del 16 marzo 2016. Statement of the European economic and social partners on the refugee crisis. Retrieved from

Van Laere, E., Agirdag, O., & van Braak, J. (2016). Supporting science learning in linguistically diverse classrooms: Factors related to the use of bilingual content in a computer-based learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 428-441.

Zetter, R., & Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, E. (2011). Study on impacts and costs of forced displacement. State of the art literature review. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Giovanni Fulantelli, Vito Pipitone

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Educational Technology (IJET) | ISSN (print) 2532-4632 | ISSN (online) 2532-7720